Hybrid cars

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The most common hybrid vehicle types are plug-in hybrids, full hybrids and mild hybrids. The main differences are as follows: Plug-in hybrids have the longest electric range and can drive longer distances purely electrically. Full hybrids have a limited electric range, while mild hybrids mainly support the combustion engine and recuperate energy during braking. The choice depends on the individual needs.
Plug-in hybrids have a combustion engine and an electric drive. The internal combustion engine drives the vehicle wheels and acts as a generator to charge the battery when it is discharged. The battery can also be charged via an external plug, which is the reason for the name “plug-in”. In purely electric mode, the distance that can be covered by a plug-in hybrid is limited. However, the range can be maximised in certain driving situations by using the combustion engine and electric motor at the same time.
Purely electric driving is possible with a Hybrid Electric Vehicle, also known as a full hybrid. This type of hybrid electric drive draws its energy from a battery that is charged by the combustion engine and recuperation. A few kilometres can now be driven in this way. However, with the electric-petrol engine combination, the electric drive switches off at medium speeds (from 70 km/h) and charging via a charging station supplied with green electricity is not possible.
A car with a mild hybrid drive has a small electric drive. In addition to starting assistance, up to 20 kW of electrical energy is available in the mild hybrid drive while driving, which reduces fuel consumption by 15 percent. Battery cells are charged by energy recuperation, but this does not result in any electric-based ranges as with a full hybrid or a plug-in hybrid. Mild hybrids are therefore more suitable for urban traffic due to the limited electric range and also the recuperation as mentioned above.
In the case of a micro-hybrid, the car is not driven electrically, as the focus here is on so-called recuperation. In other words: the rolling and braking energy is converted into electrical energy and stored. This energy supports the start/stop function and thus saves up to ten percent fuel. Today, almost all cars have this function, meaning that all modern combustion-engine vehicles are also micro-hybrids in the broadest sense.